Document Type : Original Article


1 Animal Production Research Institute, Sheep and Goat Research Department, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

2 Animal Production Research Institute, by-products Research Department, Dokki, Giza, Egypt


our experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of replacing conventional energy sources as 6o% concentrate feed mixture (CFM) and 40% rice straws (RS) by 5% (DM / kg) of non-conventional energy sources as 2.5% protect fat (PF) and 2.5% corn steep liquor (CSL) + 50% CFM +45% RS on productive and reproductive performance of male goats. In all experiments; the rations were generated metabolic energy at 3213.67 and 3230.22 k cal /kg DM for ME1 (control) and ME2 (trial), respectively. The first experiment using two billy goats aged 32 months and weighed 51-52 kg to indicate fertility rate. At 60 days pre-mating season and continued to end mating season billy goats in control and trial groups were nourished ME1 another ME2, respectively Fertility performance obtained with forty-two similar nanny goats allocated into two groups (n= 21 does / group) . The second experiment managed to welfare eight weaning male kids (N=4 /group) during sexual puberty development; their average initial body weight 15.85 kg and aged 135 days and received ME1 or ME2. During sexual puberty of kids the changing of growth rate, scrotal circumference, testicular volume and testosterone concentration were measured. Then, semen characteristics were investigated when kids reached sexual puberty age. The third experiment used the previous kids to welfare them during growth performance and nourished same energy levels located in ME1 and ME2.  During growth rate live body weight, average daily weight gain, dry matter intake, feed conversion ratio, daily water consumption, feed cost and economic efficiency were calculated. The fourth experiment was to investigate blood metabolites at end of kids' growth period. The blood samples were collected from 6 kids (3 kids / energy level) to assay glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL concentrations. The results indicated that 1st experiment could be shown that mature billy goat of ME2 achieved higher conception rate, total number of offspring, fecundity, prolificacy and litter size 95.24%, 44.00, 209.52%, 180.00% and 2.20 than ME1 billy goat 85.71%, 38.00,180.95%, 150.00% and 2.11, respectively. However in 2nd experiment, all sexual puberty stages of kids received ME2 diet had the highest (P<0.05) testicular measurements (scrotal circumference and volume), testosterone levels and semen characteristics compared to ME1 energy levels. The 3rd experiment showed (P<0.05) changes in dry matter intake, feed conversion ratio and water consumption among kids fed ME1 and . On the contrary, ME2 diet indicated a significantly (P<0.05) higher live body weight, average daily weight gain than ME1. In addition, ME2 achieved lower feed cost and greater economic efficiency than kids fed ME1. In the 4th experiment, plasma glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL concentrations did not significantly differ among all energy except plasma HDL. Then, ME2 had higher (P<0.05) HDL than ME1 energy diets. Based on results of the present study, it could be concluded that supplement of combination between industrial by-product of energy sources as PF and CSL could  improve semen quality of billy goats concomitant goodness fertility, progressive kids sexual puberty, amending semen characteristics at puberty, reducing ration consumption, safely to feedlot performance and keeping blood metabolites in normal status.


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